Das Oberhaupt aller Mevlevi

(Aus einem Beitrag von Ibrahim Gamard Efendi)

 

Der Mevlevi-Orden – eine islamische Tradition – führt die spirituellen Lehren und die Praxis von Mevlânâ Jalâluddîn Rûmî, seinen Nachfahren und seinen Anhängern seit über 700 Jahren fort. Durch die Restriktionen, denen die Sufi-Organisationen in der Türkei seit über 80 Jahren unterworfen sind, wurde die Mevlevi-Tradition deutlich geschwächt.

In der heutigen Welt, in der Informationen elektronisch leicht zugänglich sind, gibt es eine ganze Reihe von Mevlevi-Organisationen, die über Webseiten verfügen und verschiedenartig Autorität beanspruchen. Dies macht es schwierig zu erkennen, welche Organisationen legitime Autorität besitzen und welche nicht. Die Folge davon ist, dass es für die Mevlevi-Tradition schwieriger ist, sich im Westen gemäß der traditionellen spirituellen Praxis, der traditionellen Lehren und einer entsprechenden Ethik zu etablieren.

Der Zweck dieses Artikels ist es klarzustellen, dass allein der „Groß-Çelebi“ oder Maqâm-i Çelebi, ein direkter Nachfahre von Mevlânâ Jalâluddîn Rûmî, berechtigt ist zu entscheiden, wer ein rechtmäßiger und autorisierter Mevlevi-Scheich ist und wer nicht. Der jetzige Maqâm-i Çelebi ist Faruk Hemdem Çelebi Efendi aus der Türkei.

Fâruk Çelebi Efendi ist Vorsitzender der Internationalen Mevlana-Stiftung (auf Türkisch Uluslarasi Hz. Mevlânâ Vakfi), deren Sitz sich in Istanbul befindet. Alle rechtmäßigen Mevlevi-Scheichs müssen über diese zentrale Organisation an ihn angeschlossen sein. Leider haben sich einige Leiter von Mevlevi-Gruppen dazu entschlossen, die Amtsgewalt des Groß-Çelebi zu ignorieren – oder, wie in manchen Fällen, ihn zwar verbal zu bestätigen, ohne aber wirklich mit ihm zusammenzuarbeiten und ohne ihm echte Gefolgschaft zu leisten.

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Mevlevi in der Schweiz

Wöchentlich treffen wir uns zu Gebet, Gottesgedenken (Dhikr) und Studien und pflegen die Gemeinschaft. Diese Zusammenkünfte stehen allen Interessierten offen, die mit dem nötigen Respekt zu uns stossen. Im weiteren üben wir das Drehen, ein äusserst effektvolles Exerzitium, das einige Male im Jahr im Sema (Drehritual) seinen Höhepunkt findet. Doch das wichtigste Übungsfeld ist der Alltag, in dem wir ständig Gelegenheiten finden, das Gelernte zu festigen und uns am Konkreten zu testen.

Du wirst frei werden von Wünschen,
Von den inneren Fantasien.
Du wirst leer werden.
Du wirst leben ohne Atem.
Du wirst eintauchen in das Leben von Ya-Hu,
Und dann wirst du aufhören, Ya-Hu zu sagen.

Du wirst zum Fenster eines jeden Hauses,
Zum Rosengarten in jedem Feld.
Verlässt du dein Selbst und lässt deine Existenz abfallen,
So wirst du Ich, ohne Mich.

(Divan-i Kebir, Meter 1, Gasel 147,
Verse 1937+1940; Übersetzung Daniel Beck)

Wir als Mevlevi Tarikat in der Schweiz arbeiten sehr eng zusammen mit unserer Dachorganisation „Internationale Mevlana Stiftung“ in Istanbul und nennen uns deshalb „Internationale Mevlana Stiftung Schweiz“. Die Gründung einer eigenen Rechtsform wurde aber notwendig. So haben wir im Herbst 2014 den Mevlana-Verein Schweiz gegründet, der für unsere bescheidenen finanziellen Mittel gerade steht.

Folgende Personen koordinieren zur Zeit die Tarikat in der Schweiz:

Peter Hüseyin Cunz  Lehrbeauftragter (Scheich), Vereinspräsident
Anne Regard Cunz  Erstkontakte, Kommunikation
Elisabeth Gubelmann  Erstkontakte, Administration, Finanzen
Nicolas Furger  Kalif und Leiter Drehritual (Semazenbaschi)
Alexander Stoll  Themenabende, Anlässe
Bärbel Hübner  Raumverantwortliche
Alma Hajdarevic  Vereins-Vizepräsidentin
Bahar Can  Kontakte in die Türkei
Tülin Özgür  Kontakte in die Türkei

 

Arbeits-Beziehung mit Leiterinnen und Leiter von Mevlevi-Gruppen im Ausland:

Nur Artiran, Istanbul, Türkei
Süleyman Bahn, Deutschland
Gustavo Martinez, Miami, USA
Muhamad Carlos Leal Roel, Mexiko und Spanien
Claudia Patricia Rodriguez Chaves, Kolumbien

Traces of Hz. Mevlana Jalal al-din Rumi in Europe (Dez 2007)

Peter Hüseyin Cunz, President of the International Mevlana Foundation in Switzerland
International Conference, 13. – 15. December 2007, Selçuk University, Konya

 

 

There are two types of traces of Hz. Mevlana in Europe. One is the academic work produced by elder scholars such as Reynold A. Nicholson, Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch, Annemarie Schimmel and Johann Christoph Bürgel, but unfortunately very few known academic works from younger scholars of European universities are to be found. The other trace – prominent but difficult to measure and evaluate – is the substance of what remains in the hearts of individuals that have been in touch with the message of Hz. Mevlana.

 

The academic traces are characterized by a scientific or philosophical approach with a high degree of objectivity and a choice of expression that is easy to be communicated on an international level, such as in this conference. In contrast to this the expression of a touched heart is subjective and often emotional, is expressed in a metaphorical language and is influenced by patterns originating from education and personal experience. In both cases the expression will be guided by the cultural and social setting of the concerned person. Since culturally and socially there are remarkable differences between Orient and Occident, these differences reflect in the way of expression – be it scientific or emotional.

 

Differences have to be understood on both sides. Considering that the cultural flow is much stronger from the Occident to the Orient than vice versa, it is only obvious that oriental people find it easier to acquire an understanding of western mentality than vice versa. Westerners who thoroughly understand oriental values and mentalities are scarce. This fact is of particular relevance when spiritual requirements and work become involved, such as those practised in the Mevlevi Tariqah. In Europe we are confronted with these differences, for in the Mevlevi Tariqahs of Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, both, western and oriental persons come together to learn and deepen a common understanding of Hz. Mevlana’s teachings.

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The Mevlevi Order in a European Context (Mai 2007)

UNESCO-Conference, Istanbul, 9th May 2007

 

I would like to start by affirming the existence of the authentic Mevlevi Order (or Tariqah) with worldwide activities, and I would like to present some thoughts based on my personal experience as one of the appointed teachers (Shaykh) within the Mevlevi Order.

 

Known as a powerful and much respected organisation during the Ottoman Empire, the Mevlevi Tariqah’s profile changed with the confinement of all Tekkes and Zawiyahs by law in 1925 during the establishment of modern Turkey and the loss of all assets as a consequence. Today the true kernel of the Mevlevi Tariqah as a religious path is relatively small and spread all over the world. In Turkey its expression is mainly seen in well-esteemed cultural activities such as classical music, Sema, fine arts and philosophical circles, whereas in Europe and North America it serves directly and openly a religious or spiritual purpose. In my speech I’d like to concentrate on the religious value of Hz. Mevlana’s works and messages, as seen from a western and particularly European point of view and in a European context.

 

When analyzing the spiritual needs of people we are immediately confronted with cultural and social questions, for it is the cultural and social environment that mostly influences the psychological patterns of an individual. Culturally and socially there are remarkable differences between Orient and Occident, and these differences reflect in the way we react to and reflect on religious messages. Whereas many oriental people have an understanding of the western way of thinking and feeling, the opposite is less obvious: there are very few Westerners who really understand the oriental way of reflection and feeling. I find it much easier to discuss with oriental people about western values than to discuss with Westerners about oriental values, and I feel a lot of esteem for those few who see clearly in both worlds, such as the great philosopher Mohammad Iqbal.

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Hör zu! Höre auf den Gesang der Rohrflöte (Dez 2008)

Zur Vermarktung des Sema in Ost und West

Bahar CAN, Dezember 2008

Jedes Jahr im Dezember, zur Zeit des Sheb-i Arus, gedenken wir Hz. Mevlanas. Zu diesem Anlass werden Konferenzen, Symposien und Sema-Rituale organisiert. Wie Sie sich erinnern, haben wir letztes Jahr nicht nur Sheb-i Arus, sondern mit grosser Freunde auch das von der Unesco portierte Mevlana-Jahr international gefeiert. Denn am 30. September 2007 jährte sich zum 800sten Mal Hz. Mevlanas Geburtstag. Eigentlich hätte ein so grosser Heiliger wie Hz. Mevlana es nicht nötig, dass wir seiner gedenken. In unserer Hilflosigkeit aber sind wir diejenigen, die es nötig haben, ihn in Würde zu verstehen zu versuchen, ihn zu erspüren und so weit nur irgend möglich uns selber zu Gefährten dieses grossen Heiligen zu machen. Jedoch, wenn auch unsere Absichten noch so gut und rein sein mögen, so sind die jeweiligen Auffassungen und Empfindungen doch ganz verschieden, so ist das Verständnis mitunter doch sehr unterschiedlich. Um Hz. Mevlanas zu gedenken, wurden im letzten Jahr die verschiedensten Events veranstaltet; sogar ein Feuerwerk haben wir für unseren Hz. Pir während der Feierzeremonie in Konya steigen lassen! Wäre er ein Pop-Ikone, hätten wir wahrscheinlich dasselbe getan…

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The Mevlevi Order in a European Context (May 2007)

Peter Hüseyin Cunz
UNESCO-Conference, Istanbul, 9th May 2007

 

I would like to start by affirming the existence of the authentic Mevlevi Order (or Tariqah) with worldwide activities, and I would like to present some thoughts based on my personal experience as one of the appointed teachers (Shaykh) within the Mevlevi Order.

 

Known as a powerful and much respected organisation during the Ottoman Empire, the Mevlevi Tariqah’s profile changed with the confinement of all Tekkes and Zawiyahs by law in 1925 during the establishment of modern Turkey and the loss of all assets as a consequence. Today the true kernel of the Mevlevi Tariqah as a religious path is relatively small and spread all over the world. In Turkey its expression is mainly seen in well-esteemed cultural activities such as classical music, Sema, fine arts and philosophical circles, whereas in Europe and North America it serves directly and openly a religious or spiritual purpose. In my speech I’d like to concentrate on the religious value of Hz. Mevlana’s works and messages, as seen from a western and particularly European point of view and in a European context.

 

When analyzing the spiritual needs of people we are immediately confronted with cultural and social questions, for it is the cultural and social environment that mostly influences the psychological patterns of an individual. Culturally and socially there are remarkable differences between Orient and Occident, and these differences reflect in the way we react to and reflect on religious messages. Whereas many oriental people have an understanding of the western way of thinking and feeling, the opposite is less obvious: there are very few Westerners who really understand the oriental way of reflection and feeling. I find it much easier to discuss with oriental people about western values than to discuss with Westerners about oriental values, and I feel a lot of esteem for those few who see clearly in both worlds, such as the great philosopher Mohammad Iqbal.

 

We all know and hopefully agree that Hz. Mevlana’s message is not only compatible with Islam but is in fact a direct teaching of Islam. Now, how come then that people in the West find strong inner resonance when reading works of Hz. Mevlana but decline or have at least difficulties with traditional Islamic values? One of the answers to this is the widely spread rejection of any religious dogma. In Europe the Christian church with its dogmatic approach has lost a lot of its power and had to make space to the values that were born in the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th century. They include the notion of citizenship, the vision of democracy, the idea of secularization and the acceptance of reason being the only and last authority for the determination of methods, truth and errors. Europeans and Westerners in general today face much difficulty in seeing the beauty of Islam when it appears in its traditional dogmatic way. In contrast to this the poetic approach of Hz. Mevlana offers more freedom to the individual in his or her interpretation and assimilation of the religious content.

 

Be it in the Orient, be it in the West, every human being carries a treasure in the heart: it is the yearning for the first and last origin of being, the paradise with nearness to God. Those who have understood that the real paradise is not linked to material wealth, worldly power and fame, will search for happiness through philosophy, spiritual values or religion. While most oriental people find it obvious that Islam offers the way to God, Europeans tend to seek for new approaches. They are receptive for various philosophies originating from Far- and Mideastern religions, among them Sufism. They search for an alternative to the ways offered by Christian institutions.

 

But we Europeans have a problem: in trying to find our way to God we use our reasoning and feeling as final authority for a judgement. This may be good for a start in order to prevent from following dubious sects, but does not work anymore when progressing on a religious path. We cannot comprehend God – this is impossible, by definition! The place of nearness to God is far beyond the limits of reasoning and understanding. Faith – and this is more than trust – is needed to progress beyond ourselves, but faith cannot be constructed – it builds up through our experiences in life. God gave us yearning and destiny; both together may lead us to faith. In the prayers and Dhikrs of our Mevlevi spiritual tradition we daily ask and beg for the increase of our own yearning.

 

How do we European rationalists, intellectuals, disillusioned Christians, atheists – you name it – find a new door to spirituality if not by being touched in our deepest being? It is not the dogmatic speech of a priest or imam who would enflame our yearning. It needs the combination of Haqq (truth) with beauty. Hz. Mevlana offers this rare combination. It is this expression of essence that touches so many hearts in our western countries and helps us to see – at least for a moment in our life – a spark of God’s Light.

 

There are many publications of varying nature using Hz. Mevlana’s verses in a simplified or distorted translation and interpretation. As an intellectual with a rather scientific mind I don’t feel attracted by such publications, but I have to admit that they do a lot of good in this world. The message of Hz. Mevlana is so powerful that it even breaks through romantic decorations and/or misinterpretations. Millions of hearts have been nourished by such publications! Of course a person already on a mystical path will most likely tend to wish for correct and professional translations.

 

To advance on a Sufi path it is of course not enough to be touched. We have to mobilize energies to create the necessary will for making an effort and we have to use our intellectual capacity and our body to overcome psychological barriers. Many seekers remain stuck in the consumption of fascinating and emotional impulses, and the actual esoteric market is actively promoting this. Sufism fascinates many of us Westerners, but when it comes to actually walk on such a path we fear the barriers that we encounter, of which the two biggest are (1) the need for regular effort and (2) the acceptance of Islam. While the first barrier is common in the entire world, the second is a typical western problem.

 

Islam as it appears to the western public and media is threatening. The social separation of men and women with the restrictions for women in their public appearance – be in dressing regulations, in mosques, or in public Sema – is certainly the first stumbling-block in the endeavour to open up for an Islamic spirituality. But also those Westerners, who overcome this, will encounter more disturbing facts such as the incompatibility of the Khalifah and Shariah with democracy. Today’s Turkey is a living example of the difficulty in bringing the traditional Islam and democratic principles to a common denominator. I’m convinced that reforms in Islamic thinking are indispensable.

 

In the Ottoman Empire and earlier it was normal that an aspirant for membership in the Mevlevi Order was a Muslim. Common Islamic rules were not a matter to be discussed, and all tests concentrated on psychological and behavioural issues. Also the absolute submission to the Shaykh was no matter of discussion. In today’s Europe we are in an entirely different situation. Hence, as one of the appointed and responsible Shaykhs and facing reality, I don’t request from an aspirant to be a pious Muslim and to accept immediately my absolute authority. If I would do so I could mainly attract people of eccentric character from fringe groups who are reacting to social frustrations and injuries. I rather welcome any seeker with acceptable manners and respect and with an open mind for our way.

 

Let me give you some insight on how the Mevlevi Order is functioning in Switzerland, a small country in the centre of Europe:

We meet every Thursday evening in a suitable meeting-place with a wooden floor. From 19.00 to 20.00 time is reserved for an inner circle, and we do the formal prayer followed alternatively by Sohbet (teaching by the Shaykh) or the training of the Mevlevi whirling. From 20.00 to 21.30 the meeting is opened to a wider public with Dhikr (invocation of His Names) and the studying of the Mesnevi. Additional to the weekly meetings we celebrate four times per year a full Sema, gather once per year for a three days retreat in the mountains and organize once per year a trip to Turkey (Konya). There is no fixed fee to be paid, but we ask to help sharing the direct costs.

 

Regarding the observation of traditional Islamic formalities we believe that there should not be any compulsion. A peaceful heart is more worth than the exact keeping of formalities. As responsible for the Swiss Tekke I seek for the individual psychological wellbeing of the members to enable them to see, experience and live the beauty and universality of Islam. During the formal prayers women stand in the same lines as men, with a small separation between them. Those who are not yet prepared to join this Islamic ritual are sitting behind in a meditative posture. The covering of the head is a free choice, also for women. We don’t do public Sema as Turkish groups do it; we celebrate it in a private atmosphere. Sema for us is a form of prayer without relevance for our culture. In our Sema men and women turn together.

 

Please allow me to conclude – in other words – with the following statements:

The purpose of the Mevlevi Order has always been to be of service and of support to those who seek nearness to God. In the past this happened in monasteries offering refuge to those wishing to go beyond the accepted standard way of Islamic belief. Today we live in a globalized world with an undefined chaos of religious opinions, mainly in Europe and generally in the economically dominating countries; and in this world the Mevlevi Order offers a way to clarity and spiritual fulfilment. Hz. Mevlana’s message can be an opening for Westerners to understand Islam and absorb its message for the shaping of one’s own being. 

 

However, the basic cultural differences between Orient and Occident are to be considered. Traditional Muslims tend to believe that the observation of the traditional Shariah is an indispensable first act to reach Tawhid (unity in God), whereas Westerners widely do not accept this, seeing the Shariah as a secondary matter developed by human reasoning during the Islamic history. This difference in view exists – also within the Mevlevi Order. This is a challenge to overcome, and I pray that it will be solved in the spirit of our Pir Hz.Mevlana.

 

 

 

 

Gedicht über Sema

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es ist, die Antwort „Ja“ der Seelen auf die Frage „Bin ich nicht Euer Herr?“ zu hören, sich zu verlieren und sich mit Gott zu vereinen.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Sema bedeutet, die Zustände des Freundes zu sehen, die Geheimnisse Gottes durch Seine göttlichen Schleier zu hören.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es bedeutet, sich von seiner eigenen Existenz loszulösen, um in der absoluten Nichtexistenz auf den Geschmack der ewigen Existenz zu kommen.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es bedeutet, angesichts der Schläge des liebenden Freundes den Kopf zu verlieren, um ohne Kopf und ohne Füsse zum Freund zu rennen.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es bedeutet, Jakob’s Kummer und Heilung zu kennen, den Geruch der Wiedervereinigung mit Joseph an seinem Hemd zu riechen.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es ist wie Moses Stock, der Pharao’s Zaubereien schluckt und vernichtet.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Es ist das Geheimnis, welches dieser Hadith ausdrückt: „Es gibt einen Augenblick der Nähe zwischen Gott und mir, da ist weder ein Engel noch ein Prophet zwischen uns“. Sema bedeutet,  diese Nähe zu erreichen, sodass nicht einmal ein Engel Platz hat.

Weisst Du, was Sema bedeutet?
Sema bedeutet, wie Schems-i Tebrizi die Herzensaugen zu öffnen und das heilige Licht zu sehen.

Hz. Mevlana
(Zitiert und übersetzt aus: Şefik Can, Fundamentals of Rumi’s Thought)

Gemeinschaftsregeln

(Version Januar 2005)

Die Internationale Mevlânâ Stiftung ist das rechtliche Organ des Ordens der Mevlevi, der für die Ausübung seiner Tätigkeiten den nachfolgenden Grundregeln verpflichtet ist.

 

1. Zweck und Ausrichtung

1.1 Der Orden bezweckt, Menschen auf der Suche nach dem letztendlichen Sinn des Lebens einen geeigneten Rahmen anzubieten. Mit Gebet und Exerzitien wird die Einheit allen Seins bewusst gemacht und in der Gemeinschaft verstärkt. Der Orden richtet sich hierfür an alle willigen Menschen der Welt, unabhängig von Geschlecht, Rasse und Kultur, die in Sehnsucht nach Gott ihren spirituellen Weg antreten wollen.
1.2 In seiner Glaubensrichtung orientiert sich der Orden an der Sicht von Hz. Mevlana Cellaleddin Rumi, einer Glaubenspraxis aufgrund der koranischen Botschaft.
1.3 Der Orden bejaht das in Europa verbreitete aufklärerische Verständnis des gewaltenteiligen und demokratischen Rechtsstaates, einschliesslich des Parteienpluralismus und der Religionsfreiheit sowie der Gleichberechtigung von Mann und Frau. Der Koran untersagt jede Gewaltenausübung und jeden Zwang in Angelegenheiten des Glaubens.
1.4 Der Orden fördert ein zeitgenössisches Verständnis religiöser Überlieferungen, das der neuzeitlichen Lebenssituation Rechnung trägt.
1.5 Für Fragen der einzuhaltenden Riten und Lehrinhalte orientiert sich der Orden an seiner eigenen bewährten Tradition, die sich in den Lehren von Pir Hz. Mevlana Cellaleddin Rumi begründet.
1.6 Der Orden missioniert nicht und vermeidet Proselytentum und politische Einflussnahme. Er bemüht sich aber um ein Sichtbarwerden in der Öffentlichkeit, um Suchenden den Zugang zum Orden zu ermöglichen.
1.7 Der Orden fördert die Verbreitung der Mevlevi-Sufi-Musik sowie der Bekanntmachung des Sema.

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Ferhat-Pasha Moschee, Serbien

Sema und Musik (Februar 2004)

Sohbet von Scheika Nur Artıran am Donnerstag, 12. Februar 2004 im Wirbel
Mit Antworten von Scheich Sefik Can Efendi auf den Brief des Semazenbasi vom Juli 2002

Sema ist von aussen betrachtet eine rhythmische Bewegung in Begleitung von Musik. In Wirklichkeit kommt jedoch die Wurzel aus dem arabischen Wort „sama‛“, das „hören“ bedeutet. Demnach bedeutet Sema nicht „drehen“, sondern „hören“. Doch das Hören, von dem hier die Rede ist, ist nicht das Hören, das wir mit unseren Ohren wahrnehmen, sondern das Hören und Fühlen der Stimme Gottes durch unsere Herzen. Hz. Mevlana sagte: „Das Fühlen, das Hören, das Verstehen Gottes ist mit weltlichen Gefühlen nicht möglich. Dieses Gefühl ist ein anderes Gefühl, ein anderes Sehen“ (Mesnevi, Sefik Can Band 6, Nr. 2206). Das Sema und die Musik sind eins. Es ist unmöglich, diese voneinander zu trennen. Musik ist die Stimme Gottes und der Semazen ist das Symbol des in Gott Verliebten.

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